Velocity All Sport Athletic Training & Complex latest 2023

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Basic Bio-Mechanics For Long Jumping

All aerials coaches and jumpers should have some understanding of basic biomechanical principles. It helps in learning and understanding the event.

1. HORIZONTAL SPEED

Theoretically this would mean that the greater the sprint speed we can achieve in the approach run, the greater the speed and therefore the distance will be. However, we need height in the air to get the best takeoff angle and that means we also need time to produce enough force for a certain vertical speed.

Many young jumpers are UNABLE to produce this vertical component if they run too fast and produce a low skimming jump, reaching less distance than they would have had they run slower or with shorter acceleration.

2. SPEED TRANSFER

In the long jump, the PLACEMENT of the jumping foot considerably in front of the center of gravity causes a slowing of the horizontal speed. This reactive force is absorbed by the supporting leg and, if strong enough, is returned as a spring, now partially vertical, through the air.

In order for this transition to take place, long jumpers tend to sink slightly on the penultimate stride and tend to gain time for greater momentum as a result, as well as making the change of direction speed from horizontal to vertical. easier to reach.

A PERSONAL OBSERVATION: In my opinion, based on jump training for over 30 years, this “sinking” occurs naturally and should not be trained. After observing and filming/videoing countless jumpers on those last three strides to the take-off board, this sinking occurs with little thought from the jumper. The well is a natural reaction when one is about to channel all the horizontal speed reached on the track into a vertical impulse.

3. FORCE APPLIED

The short time a long jumper has on the board limits his ability to develop his power. This 0.11-0.13 of a second is “all the time” they need to develop vertical force by extending the support leg and ankles, and in which to create force from a strong upward push free thigh and counterweight arm.

A long jumper needs quick reactions from the nervous system to provide vertical momentum in such a short time.

NOTE: Once a specific exercise has been introduced, practiced and understood, any short approach work performed from 4 to 10 strides MUST be performed at high speeds. This will have the effect of educating the body’s nervous system to react very quickly in a short time.

4. TRANSFER OF MOMENTUM

Body parts [arms and legs] can generate momentum [mass x velocity] in a given direction which can be communicated in quantity and direction to the body as a whole. For the long jump, the ground contact time at takeoff is so short that we have to use faster and shorter levers. So we shorten the moment arm using bent knee swings and usually bent arm swings. Short levers are quick and snappy although a long lever is more powerful but not necessarily faster.

5. THROW ANGLE

The long jump angle is a compromise between the need for horizontal speed and the need for height. The horizontal speed reduces the time spent on the board and therefore the time to gain height. In the case of the young jumper, excessive speed is often the cause of a bad jump because there is little or no time to reach the optimum take-off angle.

We look at angles between 18° and 22°. This angle is measured from the C of G.

6. VERTICAL HEIGHT OF CENTER OF GRAVITY

Theoretically, this should be at its maximum so that contact with the ground is lost when the C of G passes over the supporting foot. THIS NEVER HAPPENS. The faster the approach, the more likely the C of G is in front of the landing foot and therefore lower than it could be.

Of course, a taller jumper has an advantage. All movements that lift the limbs on take-off also lift the C of G. So a fully straight and up front leg, a strong upward thrust of the free thigh, and well-up arms help in this direction.

FOOTNOTE:

I really think it’s important for a jump coach to be aware of these basic biomechanical concepts. Their understanding can only improve the coaching process.

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